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2022-01-01 17:26:02

Dr. Fariba Azadikhah
Reviewed by:
Dr. Fariba Azadikhah

What is the Endometriosis?

Endometriosis (en-doe-me-tree-O-sis) is a most painful and common disorder in women and it happens the time that tissue similar to the tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus known as the endometrium grows outside of the uterus. Endometriosis commonly involves usually the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the tissue lining the pelvis. Seldom, endometrial-like tissue may be found beyond the area where pelvic organs are located. Following endometriosis, the endometrial-like tissue acts like endometrial tissue and it can cause thickening, breaks down and bleeds with each menstrual cycle. But unlike the endometrium tissue which will be ejected from the vagina, this tissue has no way to exit the body and so it becomes trapped. When endometriosis involves the ovaries, cysts called endometriomas may form. Surrounding tissue can become irritated, eventually developing scar tissue and adhesions bands of fibrous tissue that can cause pelvic tissues and organs to stick to each other. Endometriosis can cause pain cycles which can be sometimes very severe and resistant especially during menstrual periods. Fertility problems are also the other problem that may develop due to endometriosis. As a matter of fact, effective treatments are available and endometriosis can be completely cured.

what are the symptoms of endometriosis?

Common signs and symptoms of endometriosis are mentioned below:

Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) :

Pelvic pain and severe cramps can begin before and extend several days into a routine menstrual period. You may also have lower back and abdominal pain during your menstrual period.

Pain with intercourse:

If you feel any pain during or after sex it can be a side effect of common endometriosis.

Pain with bowel movements or urination:

The discomfort feelings and pain You may likely experience including these symptoms mostly happen during your menstrual period.

Excessive bleeding:

Patients may experience occasional heavy menstrual periods (bleeding more than normal menstrual bleeding) or bleeding between periods (intermenstrual bleeding).


In some cases, endometriosis is first diagnosed in patients seeking treatment for infertility disorders.

Other signs and symptoms:

You may experience various types of symptoms like fatigue, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, or nausea, especially during menstrual periods

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When to see a doctor?

Make an appointment to visit your doctor if you have experienced any of these signs and symptoms that may indicate endometriosis.

Endometriosis may be a challenging condition to manage especially by passing time. An early diagnosis, a multidisciplinary medical team, and an understanding of your diagnosis may result in better management of your symptoms. So as it is completely clear take care of yourself.

What are the different theories about endometriosis?

Retrograde menstruation:

In retrograde menstruation theory, it is discussed that menstrual blood containing endometrial cells flows back through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity instead of exiting out of the body from the vagina. These endometrial cells stick to the pelvic walls and surfaces of pelvic organs, and then they start to grow and continue to thicken and bleed over the course of each menstrual cycle which happens because of hormonal changes.

Transformation of peritoneal cells theory :

In what is discussed as the "induction theory," experts state that hormones or immune factors promote the transformation of peritoneal cells which are cells that line the inner side of the abdomen into endometrial-like cells.

Embryonic cell transformation theory:

Sexual hormones inclusion estrogen may transform embryonic cells (the cells in the earliest stages of development) into endometrial-like cell implants during puberty.

Surgical scar implantation theory:

 After a surgery involved with the uterus, such as a hysterectomy or cesarean section, endometrial cells may attach to a surgical incision and then commencement to grow.

Endometrial cell transport theory:

The blood vessels or tissue fluid (lymphatic) system may transport endometrial cells from uterus tissues to other parts of the body like ovaries.

Immune system disorder theory:

A condition with the immune system like weakness of it can make the body unprepared and unable to recognize and destroy endometrial-like tissue which is growing outside the uterus.

What are the risk factors for endometriosis?

Various factors place you at greater risk of developing endometriosis, including:

Never giving birth

Starting your period at an early age

Going through menopause at an older age

Short menstrual cycles — for instance, less than 27 days

Heavy menstrual periods that last longer than seven days

Having higher levels of estrogen in your body or greater lifetime exposure to estrogen your body produces

Low body mass index

One or more relatives (mother, aunt, or sister) with endometriosis

Any medical condition that prevents the passage of blood from the body during menstrual periods

Disorders of the reproductive tract

Is endometriosis a serious disease?

However endometriosis is a very painful condition that can affect a patient's quality of life, it's not considered a fatal disease. In extremely rare instances, while, complications of endometriosis can cause potentially life-threatening problems. So it is important to be managed as soon as possible.

What are the 4 stages of endometriosis?

The ASRM classification system has divided endometriosis into four stages or grades based on the number of lesions and depth of infiltration: minimal (Stage I), mild (Stage II), moderate (Stage III), and severe (Stage IV). The classification additionally utilizes a scoring system to try to quantify endometriotic lesions.

Differences Between Endometriosis and Adenomyosis

Few numbers of women know what the endometrium is. But they all probably have seen it. It’s the tissue inside of their uterus that body peels off and sheds during each woman’s menstrual period cycles. When this lining spreads to other places rather than outside of the body, you may have similar but separate conditions called endometriosis and adenomyosis. They affect different parts of the body, share some symptoms, and may require different treatments at the same time. You can have both of these problems together at the same time. Doctors don’t know exactly what causes them. With adenomyosis, the inside of woman’s womb gets thicker and bigger, which does not mostly happen with endometriosis. The enlarged uterus may:

• Put pressure on your bladder and rectum

• Change the way your uterine muscles tighten (contract)

• Cause heavy and painful periods

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